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There are three ways to reset Windows читать больше without losing your existing data, with each offering a near enough the same results through different methods. Note All existing Win32 applications and data will be deleted.
 
 

 

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Get the latest tutorials on SysAdmin and open source topics. Hub for Good Supporting each other to make an impact. Write for DigitalOcean You get paid, we donate to tech non-profits. Have you ever wondered what that checksum link was for? That checksum is used to verify the integrity of the file you just downloaded. On February 20th, , the website for Linux Mint, a popular Linux distribution, was hacked and the ISO used to install the distro was compromised.

Before the compromised ISO was discovered, many people downloaded and possibly installed a version of Linux Mint with a backdoor baked in. This dangerous install could have been avoided at the user level if the individuals who downloaded the altered ISO performed a file verification to see if what they downloaded had the same checksum as the original file. File verification, also known as hashing , is the process of checking that a file you have on your machine is identical to the source file..

When you hash a file, you are left with a checksum , a random alpha numeric string with a set length. The process to generate a checksum is often called a one-way cryptographic function. When the file is hashed using the MD5 algorithm, the resulting checksum will be 32 random characters. If you were to hash a character long file, the resulting MD5 checksum is still 32 characters.

Even if the source file was only 10 characters long, the MD5 checksum would still be 32 random characters. But if even one thing is different, like an extra space in the file, the checksum will be completely different. The version is identified as either a number like 1, 2, 3, or by the number of times SHA is run in succession, such as , , or The checksum you use should specify which version of SHA to use.

For the purposes of file verification, both methods are equally valid. Though the algorithm is different, both will return a random string with a set length, although MD5 hashes are shorter than any of the SHA hashes.

Those steps are beyond the scope of this tutorial. Checking the hash on downloaded files provides two different assurances that are both worthwhile. Both of these cases are important since, if either were to happen, the download you have could be harmful to your machine or may not work at all. Most Linux distributions have command line tools for each hashing algorithm. So to hash with MD5, the program name is md5sum. To hash with SHA , the command is shasum. Execute the md5sum command and pass it the path to the file you want to hash:.

Since any modification to the file will result in a completely different checksum, to save time just check the first few characters and the last few are the same as the source instead of every character. For example, if you wanted to quickly verify that the checksum for ‘mini. The most common SHA hashing commands are sha1sum and shasum. Execute the sha1sum command by passing it the path to the file:. Unlike Linux, macOS only has two hashing commands md5 and shasum , instead of one for every algorithm.

But we can still perform all the checks we need with just these tools. Despite different applications and different operating systems, the resulting hash from these tools is the same on every OS.

Since md5 is a standalone algorithm, it is its own command on macOS. Execute the md5 command, passing it the path to the file you want to check:. As you can see, the output on macOS is not exactly the same as the output on Linux, but it still shows the filename and 32 character random string.

Compare the characters with the original MD5 checksum and ensure that they match. When running it, you provide the type of SHA check you want as an argument. If you needed to perform a SHA check, the command would be shasum -a mini. Windows 7 and later versions include the certutil app that can handle all of our hashing needs. The output looks very different from Linux and macOS, but the checksum will be the same and just as valid.

Both of the examples that follow use PowerShell. If the command line is a bit too inconvenient for easy file verification, here are a few GUI based tools you can use instead:. I love Linux. I’ve been using it, setting it up, supporting it, and maintaining it since I do it for work and for play. Linux rocks! Where would you like to share this to? Twitter Reddit Hacker News Facebook.

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By Michael Holley Published on June 7, How File Verification Works File verification, also known as hashing , is the process of checking that a file you have on your machine is identical to the source file.. Performing File Verification on Linux Most Linux distributions have command line tools for each hashing algorithm. Execute the md5sum command and pass it the path to the file you want to hash: md5sum mini. About the authors. Michael Holley. Brian Hogan.

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